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Inger Roos Curriculum vitae

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switching behaviour customers

Inger Roos

Inger Rose-May ROOS (Sundqvist)
Varvsvägen 71, 68620 JAKOBSTAD, Finland
Munsala, Finland

CV - (abbreviated version)


1997 Lic. Sc. (Econ). 1997, Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Helsinki, Finland
1999 Ph.D. Sc (Econ).1999, Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Helsinki, Finland
2003 Associate Professor Karlstad University, Sweden


2002-2008 Associate Professor at Karlstad University, Sweden, researcher, the research profile “The New Service Economy” (KK-stiftelsen, The Knowledge Foundation) focusing on theoretical, methodological, and empirical aspects of service development in both service and manufacturing companies regarding relationships
2001- Consultant at I & H Roos, Pietarsaari, Finland
2009-2012 Project leader and researcher in the project “LET – A Model for Loyalty-Enhancing–The significance of Active and Passive in Dynamic Customer Relationships” financed by (KK-stiftelsen, The Knowledge Foundation)
The project co-operates with Telia Sweden and LFV-Airport Karlstad and the aim is to develop company-specific tools for enhanced customer loyalty through the understanding of the difference between active and passive customers and how their choices are related to actual behavior. The ultimate purpose is to design company-specific communication program with a loyalty-enhancing effect.
2010- Steering-group member. Service as an accounting object: Exploring the accounting objects of the 21st century and their implications to the management accounting theory (and practice) Tampere University of Technology, Faculty of Business and Technology, Cost Management Center, Finland.

Commissions of trust

  1. Chair of the board at The Foundation for Finno-Swedish Gymnastics, 2001-
  2. Member of one program council at Vinnova (Swedish Agency for Innovation Systems) 2003-2009
  3. Zonta International, Pietarsaari, Finland, member of the board 2004-06
  4. SERVSIG Interest Groups for Service research, American Marketing Association (AMA), Member of the committee for announcing “The Best Published Article in Marketing Journals in 2004”
  5. Member of “Hanken, Fortbildning, Vasa, Finland”, (Continuation courses) Management, 2007-2010
  6. Member of board Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki and Vaasa, Finland, 2009-2011
  7. Norlic, member of the board 2014 -

Previous Employment

1976-1999, Owner of a Supermarket, Retail chain Kesko in Finland
1995-1999, Researcher at Hanken, Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Helsinki, Finland, CERS, Center for Relationship Marketing
1999-2001, Researcher granted by Foundation of Liikesivistysrahasto, Helsinki, Finland
2001-2002, Researcher at The Academy of Finland 1.8.2001-31.7.2002
2000-2003, Researcher at Karlstad University, CTF (Centrum för Tjänsteforskning/Service Research Center)
Supermarket ownership: Kanal-Hörnet, Jakobstad 1976-79, K-Harry, Bennäs 1979-85, K-Alfa, Jakobstad 1985, Torghallen, Nykarleby 1985-1992, Marketor, Jakobstad 1992-1999.

Visiting professor

Katolische Universität Eichstaett, Dienstleistungs Management, Professor Bernd Stauss, Ingolstadt, Germany, November 2003, “Retailing“.

Fields of special interest

Customer Switching Behavior. Customer switching behavior takes an actual-behavior approach to studying customer relationships. Switching is the departure of the approach to customer relationship and switching is recalled as a switching process (switching path) and includes accordingly both the switched-from and switched-to relationships. This perspective represents a gap in the literature on customer relationships.

Method development. The field of interest includes method development for mapping relationships, the qualitative method for the purpose is labelled SPAT (Switching Path Analysis Technique, 1999). The quantitative enlargement is done at CTF, (Centrum för Tjänsteforskning/Center for Service Research) in Sweden and aims at achieving a new-generation loyalty model that includes a trigger function which is based on the catalytic nature of the “Switching-path logic” (SPAT). Published in Journal of Marketing 2005/October.

Customer Clubs. The special area of loyalty programs that is labelled customer clubs are one part of the general loyalty research. Customer clubs have been the focus during a few years and resulted in two publications. A special modification of SPAT called the SPAT mechanism was applied to customer relationships with the special attention to customer clubs. The findings show the role of customer clubs in telecom-customers’ relationships. The role appeared to be more complex compared to the assumed function of the club.

Loyalty. 2002- The direct implication of the method development for mapping customer relationships was to look at the implication of the Trigger logic for the loyalty research. The long-term empirical studies amongst telecom customers, 6 years, have revealed an interesting switching pattern. Customers seem to follow a certain pattern not only when they switch but also when they stay loyal. The customer-perceived triggers tell already at the switching moment much about the duration of the switched-to customer relationship.

Emotions. During 2005 and 2006 a new area of interest has been initiated. The role of emotions for customer relationships is in focus. SPAT has been applied to telecomcustomer relationships and surprisingly many emotions have been connected to the switching situations. The results imply that relatively weak emotions influence frequent switching considerably. Stress, for example, is included in frequent switching.

Customer-Support Service. During 2005- 2006 a new project was initiated that focuses on the customer-support service function in telecommunication. This particular function is a part of almost every company in different industries. However, it is rarely studied. The perspective on customer-support service in this project is the customers’ which is achieved by applying the SPAT-mechanism. The customers’ perception of the importance of the function of customer support for the relationship duration is emphasized. Findings imply an interesting connection between a company’s image and their support service.

Active and passive customers. During 2008 a new project was initiated that focuses on the enhanced understanding of loyalty through a deeper understanding of the difference between active and passive customers. When the customers’ evaluation is related to actual behavior new insights occur. The fact that some customers are active while others are passive has been ignored when connecting customers’ evaluation to loyalty. The goal and simultaneously the outcome of the new project, LET (Loyalty Enhancing Tool), that takes into account actual behavior and active and passive customers is accordingly developed in two different kinds of organization. Today, customer evaluation of the focal companies is often understood in terms of high or low figures. In fact, valuable customer messages for companies are embedded in the evaluations, only an appropriate tool for being able to comprehend the communication is needed. The development of LET represents a big step towards a better understanding in companies for their customers in terms of distinguishing between important and less important factors for loyalty when improving their service. Tentative results show that one dimension of the difference between active and passive customers is embedded in their ability to express and communicate the character of their relationships. Knowledge about the relationships is imperative for loyal customer. This project searches for the right knowledge to communicate to customers for enhanced loyalty.

Loyalty-enhancing Communication. The LET-project developed and tested during the late stage the outcome i.e. the Loyalty Enhancing Tool – LET, which is the result of the cooperation between two Swedish companies and a research team, one telecom company and one airport, and a research team from CTF (Service research Center) at Karlstad University. The development of LET- Loyalty Enhancing Tool represents a big step towards a better understanding in companies for how relationship understanding and a loyalty-enhancing communication are connected. In the LET-project different kinds of communication were tested on samples of the telecom company’s database including 4 million customers. The results were surprisingly good for the confirmation of a better acceptance of communication amongst customers when the base for it is actual behavior. Given the known link between knowledge of the relationships and loyalty in literature the importance of a communication seems to be to possessing the ability to get through the flow of communication because it corresponds to what customers experience interesting and necessary knowledge for them.

Customer-support service. The active/passive logic says that customers obtain information differently, not only based on their age, education and living conditions, but because their ability to perceive differs. This fact has never been addressed and taken into consideration in customer-support service. For the customer-support function the ability aspect has immeasurable implications. The definition of the differences between active and passive customers indicates that companies may not reach passive customers through traditionally designed customer-support functions. Therefore, during the first stage of this project the best practice of customer support is established and during the extension the innovation of customer-support service.

SPAT (Switching Path Analysis Technique) applied to the B2B context. This research focuses on the SPAT application to enlarge the understanding of customer switching from B-to-C context to the dynamics of B-to-B supplier switches. The approach proved the applicability of SPAT in B-to-B settings. The B-to-B context adds complexity forming a relationship flow where many driving factors act for switching. SPAT application appears to be more indistinct in the B-to-B contexts. The B-to-B supplier switches appeared to be complex processes. The supplier should be able to constantly be aware of the major changes in the customers’ business. Based on this awareness, the supplier may actively affect the development of the relationship to avoid unwanted switches.

Long-term research and planning, application of SPAT
(Switching Path Analysis Technique)


Herrfors Ab/Oy
LFV (Luftfartsverket)
Volvo Trucks



1. National and International Marketing Journals

  1. Roos, Inger (1999), “Switching Processes in Customer Relationships,” Journal of Service Research, Vol. 2, No. 1, August 1999, pp. 376-393.
  2. Roos, Inger (1999), “Bytesprocesser i kundrelationer,” Journal of the Economic Society of Finland, Vol. 52, No. 3, pp. 155-159.
  3. Roos, Inger (2001), “Företagsledaren – en länk i en dynamisk marknadsföringsfunktion,” The Journal of the Economic Society of Finland, Vol. 54, No. 2, pp. 85-92.
  4. Edvardsson Bo and Inger Roos (2001), “Critical Incident Techniques-Towards a framework for analysing the criticality of critical incidents,” International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 251-268.
  5. Liljander Veronica and Inger Roos (2002), “Customer Relationship Levels-From Spurious to True Relationships,” Journal of Service Marketing, Vol. 16, No. 7, pp. 593-614.
  6. Roos, Inger (2002), “Methods of Investigating Critical Incidents: A Comparative Review,” Journal of Service Research, Vol. 4, No. 3, February, pp. 193-204.
  7. Edvardsson Bo and Inger Roos (2003), “Customer Complaints and Switching Behavior- A Study of Relationship Dynamics in a Telecommunication Company,” Journal of Relationship Marketing, 2, (1/2), 43-68.
  8. Roos, Inger, Bo Edvardsson and Anders Gustafsson (2004), “Customer Switching Patterns in Competitive and Non-Competitive Service Industries,” Journal of Service Research, Vol. 6, No. 3, pp. 256-271.
  9. Gustafsson Anders, Inger Roos and Bo Edvardsson (2004), “Customer Club in a Relationship Perspective-a Telecom Case,” International Journal Managing Service Quality, Vol. 14, No 2/3, pp. 157-168.
  10. Gustafsson, Anders, Michael D. Johnson and Inger Roos (2005) “The Effects of Customer Satisfaction, Relationship Commitment Dimensions and Triggers on Customer Retention,” Journal of Marketing, Volume 69, Number 4 (October) CRM Special Section, 210-218.
  11. Roos, Inger, Anders Gustafsson and Bo Edvardsson (2005), “The Role of Customer Clubs in Recent Telecom Relationships,”International Journal of Service Industry Management16 (5), 436-454.
  12. Edvardsson, Bo, Anders Gustafsson and Inger Roos (2005), "Service Portraits in Service Research - A Cricital Review," International Journal of Service Industry Management 16 (1), 107-121.
  13. Roos, Inger, Anders Gustafsson and Bo Edvardsson (2006), “Defining Service Quality for Customer-Driven Business Development - a Housing-Mortgage Company Case,” A Special Issue of The International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 207-223.
  14. Roos, Inger and Anders Gustafsson (2007), "Understanding Frequent Switching Patterns - a Crucial Element in Managing Customer Relationships,”Journal of Service Research, Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 93-108.
  15. Roos, Inger, Margareta Friman and Bo Edvardsson (2008), “Emotional Experiences in Customer Relationships – a Telecommunication Study,” The International Journal of Service Industry Management, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2008. pp. 281-301.
  16. Roos Inger and Bo Edvardsson (2008), “Customer-support Service in the Relationship Perspective,” Managing Service Quality (MSQ), Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 87-107.
  17. Roos, Inger, Margareta Friman and Bo Edvardsson (2009), “Emotions and Stability in Telecom-customer Relationships”, Accepted for a Special Issue based on Award winner Servsig 2008, Liverpool, The International Journal of Service Industry Management, (2009).
  18. Roos Inger, Anders Gustafsson, Bo Edvardsson and Peter Landmark (2010). “Should we Differentiate between Business and Private Customers?” Management Research and Practice, Vol. 2 Issue 2, pp. 1-13.
  19. Roos, Inger and Anders Gustafsson (2011), "The Influence of Active and Passive Customer Behaviour on Switching in Customer Relationships", Managing Service Quality (MSQ), Vol. 21 No.5, pp. 448-464. Outstanding Paper Award Winner at the Literati Network Awards for Excellence 2012.
  20. Wägar, Karolina, Inger Roos, Annika Ravald and Bo Edvardsson (2012), “My Customers Are in my Blind Spot: Are They Changing and I Can’t See It?, Journal of Service Research, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 150-165.
  21. Roos, Inger, Martin Löfgren and Bo Edvardsson (2013), “Customer-support Service from a Relationship Perspective - Best Practice for Telecom", Management Research and Practice Journal (MRP), Vol. 5, Issue 2, pp. 5-21.
  22. Selos Erno, Teemu Laine, Inger Roos, Petri Suomala and Lauri Pitkänen, (2013), "Applying SPAT for understanding B-to-B supplier switching processes", Managing Service Quality (MSQ), Vol.23, Issue 4, pp. 321-340.
  23. Skarin, Frida, Lars E. Olsson, Inger Roos and Margareta Friman (2017). "The Household as an Instrumental and Affective Trigger in Intervention Programs for Travel Behaviour Change". Travel Behaviour and Society, Vol 6, pp. 83-89.

2. Research reports and other books

  1. Kock, Sören and Inger Roos (1995), “Total Perceived Service Quality - A Longitudinal Approach”, in Workshop on Quality Management in Services V, P.J. Both, A-M. Govaerts, H. Greve, A. Hooijmaijers, R. Pieters and M. van de Ven-Verhulp (Eds.) Tilburg (the Netherlands), May 11-12.
  2. Roos, Inger (1998), Customer Switching Behavior in Retailing. Research reports No. 41, Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration, Helsinki, Finland.
  3. Roos, Inger (1999), Switching Paths in Customer Relationships. Publications of the Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration No. 78. Helsinki: Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration.
  4. Roos, Inger och Christian Grönroos (2000), “The Service Quality Path: A Longitudinal Service Quality Study with Implications for Image and Relationship Marketing”, in Service Quality in the New Economy: Interdisciplinary and International Dimensions. Ed. Edvardsson, B., S. W. Brown, R. Johnston and E. E. Scheuing. New York: ISQA, pp. 193-203.
  5. Liljander, Veronica och Inger Roos (2000), ”Kunders förtroende för tjänsteföretag–svårt att uppnå men lätt att förlora?”, in Palvelut ja Asiakassuhteet-Markkinoinnin polttopisteessä. Ed. Grönroos, Christian och Raija Järvinen, Helsinki: Kauppakaari Oyj.
  6. Edvardsson, Bo och Inger Roos (2000), ”Bytesprocesser och klagomålsbeteende-en studie av kundrelationer i ett telekommunikationsföretag”, in Palvelut ja Asiakassuhteet-Markkinoinnin polttopisteessä. Ed. Grönroos, Christian och Raija Järvinen, Helsinki: Kauppakaari Oyj.
  7. Roos, Inger (2001), “Switching Path Analysis Technique: An Improvement on CIT”, in 2001 ServSIG Services Research Conference: New Horizons in Services Marketing’. Ed. Elliott, Greg and Jim Barnes, Chicago:AMA Proceedings Series 311 S. Wacker Drive.
  8. Roos, Inger (2002), ”Segmentering av kunder i ett byteperspektiv”, in Marknadsföring i tjänsteekonomin, Ed. Echeverri, Per och Bo Edvardsson, Gylling: Naryana Press och Lund: Studentlitteratur.
  9. Edvardsson, Bo, Anders Gustafsson och Inger Roos (2002), “Understanding the Trigger Effect on Customers’ Maturity Processes in Telecommunications”, in Service Quality in Service: Crossing Boundaries. Ed. Tax, S, Ian Stuart, Stephen W. Brown, Bo Edvardsson, Robert Johnston and Eberhard E. Scheuing. Canada, Victoria: University of Victoria, Printing and Duplicating Services, pp. 256-265.
  10. Roos, Inger, Anders Gustafsson and Bo Edvardsson (2004), “The Role of Customer Clubs in Telecom Relationships” in Service Excellence in Management: Interdisciplinary Contributions, Karlstad, Sweden, June 15-18. Ed. Edvardsson, B., A. Gustafsson, S. W. Brown and R. Johnston. Karlstad: Karlstad University Press: pp. 170-179.
  11. Taylor, A. Gail, Lawrence Hamer and Inger Roos (2004), “Customer Reactions to Involuntary Switching”, in, Service Excellence in Management: Interdisciplinary Contributions. Ed. Edvardsson Bo, Anders Gustafsson, Stephen W. Brown and Robert Johnston,  Karlstad, Sweden: Conference proceedings June 15-18, 2004, pp. 554-555.
  12. Edvardsson, Bo, Anders Gustafsson and Inger Roos (2004) “Service Portrays and Service Constructions – A Critical Review Through the Lens of the Customer”, Frontiers in Services, October 28-31, Miami, USA.
  13. Edvardsson, Bo, Margareta Friman and Inger Roos (2007) “Service Qualtiy Groundedn in Customer Experiences, Affect and Relationships”, Anniversary publication for Bernd Stauss.
  14. Roos, Inger, Anders Gustafsson, Bo Edvardsson and Anna Nelsson Etzell (2011), “SPAT (Switching Path Analysis Technique) - a Method to Understand Switching Paths and Future Behavior”, in Advances in Service Quality, Innovation and Excellence. Ed. Bo van der Rheee, Liana Victorino, Ithaca, NY, USA: Conference proceedings June 2-5, 2011, pp. 866-875.
  15. Roos, Inger (2012), ”Segmentering av kunder i ett byteperspektiv”, in Marknadsföring i tjänsteekonomin, Ed. Echeverri, Per och Bo Edvardsson.  Lund: Studentlitteratur.
  16. Roos, Inger (2015) SPAT (Switching Patch Analysis Technique) - A qualitative approach to customer relationships. In The Nordic School - Service Marketing and Management for the Future, J. Gummerus and C. Von Koskull, (Editors) CERS, Hanken School of Economics.
  17. Roos, Inger (2017), "Lojala kunder - Fånga potentialen mellan kundmötena" Stockholm: Liber.